A step by step guide to upgrading to MySQL 5.5
Download the binary
$ cd /root/ $ wget http://dev.mysql.com/get/Downloads/MySQL-5.5/mysql-5.5.11-linux2.6-i686.tar.gz/from/http://mysql.llarian.net/ $ mv index.html mysql-5.5.8-linux2.6-i686.tar.gz
Backup the MySQL configuration
$ mkdir /root/mysql-5.1-conf $ cp -R /etc/mysql/ /root/mysql-5.1-conf
Backup the data directory
We will be backing up the data in the form of SQL dump as well as by copying the data files over to a safe place, just to be 100% sure about the data not getting lost.
$ mkdir /root/mysql-5.1-data $ cp -R /var/lib/mysql/ /root/mysql-5.1-data
Backup the data as SQL dump
mysql database separately and not with all the other databases, because we are going to need it before we restore all the databases.
$ mkdir /root/mysql-5.1-dump $ mysqldump -u user_name -p --databases mysql > /root/mysql-5.1-dump/mysql.sql $ mysqldump -u user_name -p --databases db_name > /root/mysql-5.1-dump/db_name.sql
Install the asynchronous I/O library
This is so that we can take advantage of the asynchronous I/O capability in the new InnoDB plugin that ships with MySQL 5.5
$ apt-get install libaio-dev
Untar the archive
$ tar xzvf mysql-5.5.8-linux2.6-i686.tar.gz
Copy or move the untarred MySQL directory to the installation directory
$ cp -R mysql-5.5.8-linux2.6-i686 /usr/local/ $ cd /usr/local/ $ ln -s mysql-5.5.8-linux2.6-i686 mysql
Remove the older version of MySQL
Now is the time to remove the older version of MySQL, in this case I assume the older version to be MySQL 5.1
$ apt-get remove mysql-server-5.1 $ apt-get autoremove $ apt-get remove mysql-client $ apt-get autoremove
Add the path to MySQL bin directory to the PATH variable
$ vim /etc/environment PATH="/usr/local/sbin:/usr/local/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/bin:/sbin:/bin:/usr/games:/usr/local/mysql/bin"
Set the correct file and directory permissions on the MySQL installation directory
Setting correct permissions is very important, make sure that all the files except those under the
data directory are owned by
data directory has to be owned by the user
$ cd /usr/local/mysql $ chown -R mysql:mysql data
Create the socket directory
Here again, setting the correct permissions on the socket directory is very important, otherwise MySQL would not run.
$ mkdir /var/run/mysqld/ $ chown -R mysql:mysql /var/run/mysqld/
Copy the sample MySQL configuration file to the etc directory and setup the paths
$ cd /usr/local/mysql/support-files/ $ cp my-large.cnf /etc/my.cnf
/etc/my.cnf so that it has the following values:
user = mysql socket = /var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock port = 3306 basedir = /usr/local/mysql datadir = /usr/local/mysql/data tmpdir = /tmp log_error = /var/log/mysql/error.log
Copy the MySQL server startup script to the startup directory
The MySQL startup script has to be placed in the directory where all the startup scripts reside, so that MySQL starts on system startup. Make sure that you make the startup script executable, and update the rc.d database to notify the system about the presence of a new startup script.
$ cd /usr/local/mysql/support-files/ $ cp mysql.server /etc/init.d/mysql $ chmod +x /etc/init.d/mysql $ update-rc.d mysql defaults
Remove the MySQL files from the older version
Make sure you don’t delete files belonging to the new version we are installing.
$ rm -R /var/lib/mysql $ rm -R /etc/mysql $ rm -R /usr/lib/mysql
When starting the MySQL server for the first time after the new installation, it has to be started without the
grants table, for two reasons. Firstly, because we want to retain the users and privileges data from the previous install of MySQL and secondly, because the schema of the
grants table in MySQL 5.5 has changed.
So what we will do is start MySQL without the
grants table, import the users and privileges data we backed up earlier in this guide and run the
mysql_upgrade script that modifies the schema of the
grants table to be in sync with that in MySQL 5.5. After that we will be able to run MySQL normally and have all the users and privileges same as in the previous version we had.
Start MySQL server without grants table.
$ mysqld --skip-grant-tables --user=mysql
Load the MySQL users and privileges data we backed up earlier
$ cd /root/mysql-5.1-backup/dump/ $ mysql < mysql.sql
Run the upgrade script so that everything gets upgraded to the version 5.5
Stop the server and start it normally
$ /etc/init.d/mysql stop $ /etc/init.d/mysql start
There you go, you have a MySQL 5.5 server up and runningSource http://www.ovaistariq.net/490/a-step-by-step-guide-to-upgrading-to-mysql-5-5/
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In thisarticle we will hide a text message inside a picture. We have choose for this tutorial a text file named topsecret.txt and a picture photo.jpg.
1. Move your files you want to combine in a new folder, in our case C:\topsecret.
2. Add the file you want to hide into a new RAR archive (in our example named topsecret.rar).
3. WinRar created the archive in the folder where our files are located.
4. Open Command Prompt (Start -> Run…, type cmd and press Enter).
5. Go to the folder where your files are located, in this case C:\topsecret by using the cd command.
6. Now type copy /b photo1.jpg + topsecret.rar hotchick.jpg where photo1.jpg is the original picture, topsecret.rar is the file that will be hidden, and hotchick.jpg is the file which contains both.
7. If you open hotchick.jpg you will see the photo1.jpg image.
8. Try opening the file with WinRar (select All files).
9. Now you can see the text file that is hidden in the picture.
A simple solution to make this more secure, is to use encryption on the RAR file or set a password when your create it.